Wolf - Canis lupus

Wolf facts

Size

Males 20 - 60 kg
Females 15 - 55 kg

Reproduction
Mating: January - March
Birth: March - May
Litter size: 1 - 11

Diet
Mainly carnivorous, specialised in wild ungulates, but can also feed on small and medium sized vertebrates, invertebrates, fruits, carrion and human garbage, as well as livestock.

Social organisation
Group living in packs, normally with only two reproductive animals. Wolf packs are territorial.

Home ranges

100 to 1000 km2

Wolf. Photo J. Linnell
Wolf - Canis lupus. Photo © John Linnell/NINA

Threats:

(1) Some populations (e.g. Scandinavia) are small and isolated, and are therefore at risk.

(2) Human tolerance is often very low, especially in areas where wolves return after an absence. Wolf depredation on livestock, competition with hunters for wild ungulates, create obvious conflicts. People often fear wolves, and in many cases wolves become symbols of a range of other conflicts between rural and urban areas.

(3) Human caused mortality is the most important factor affecting wolves, from poaching and hunting. It is vital to combat poaching and ensure that hunting and lethal control are kept within sustainable limits.

Distribution:

Status:

c. 17,000 in Europe (of which 13,000 to 14,000 are in the EU)

9 populations

 

Population name

Countries

Size (

2012-2016)

Trend

Scandinavian

Norway, Sweden

c. 430

Increase

Karelian

Finland

c. 200

Stable to increase

Baltic

Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland

1700 - 2240

Stable

Central European lowlands

Germany, Poland

780-1030

Increase

Carpathian

Slovakia, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Serbia

3460 - 3849

Stable

Dinaric-Balkan

Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", Albania, Serbia (incl. Kosovo*), Greece, Bulgaria

c. 4000

Unknown

Alps

Italy, France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia

420 - 550

Increase

Italian peninsula

Italy

1100 - 2400

Slightly increasing

NW Iberian

Spain, Portugal

No recent update, but 2007 estimate was 2500

Unknown

Sierra Morena

Spain

0

Extinct